Know about causes of Infertility in men and women Infertility is a state of the reproductive system that prevents the conception of babies. It is a rare condition and affects approximately 10-15% of couples in the world. In men and women, there are several causes of Infertility, and it could be due to various reasons such as - disease and medical conditions, and it affects about one in six men and women of reproductive age. This is usually identified when couples are unsuccessful in conceiving despite trying for a year or more, and they are immediately diagnosed. The causes of Infertility equally affect both men and women where some couples have multiple diagnoses concerning both partners while others are faced with the troubling mystery of Unexplained Infertility. Many leading reproductive professional organizations such as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and others recommend seeing an infertility specialist if they meet the conditions such as Unsuccessful pregnancy despite having one year of unprotected sexual intercourse by a woman under 35 years of age, trying for six months and still failing to conceive over the age of 35, the patient has an experience of two or more miscarriages, the patient is diagnosed with PCOS or endometriosis or factors such as low sperm count in the male partner. Infertility could be due to various reasons which might not be the fault of the patient such as environmental factors, genetic factors, structural factors and other medical disorders. Although, factors such as a poor diet, athletic overtraining, exposure to chemicals and usage of drugs, alcohol or tobacco could also majorly contribute to the problem. Causes of Infertility The problem with Menstruation and Ovulation are1) Anovulation - The irregular or abnormal ovulation is one of the biggest reasons for female Infertility and attributes to 25% of all female infertility problems. 2) Blocked Fallopian Tubes/ Tubal Disease - This is another cause of Infertility where the fallopian tubes are scarred or blocked, which prevents fertilization. 3) Endometriosis It can be a painful and chronic condition that is characterized by the formation of aligning outside the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bowel and bladder. The scar tissue formed from this condition can cause Infertility. 4) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
This cause of Infertility a hormonal imbalance which results in lack of ovulation, irregular periods and Infertility. It forms small cysts on the ovary, which can be seen on an ultrasound and is often associated with insulin resistance. 5) Fibroids Non-cancerous, estrogen-dependent benign tumours were growing in the uterus, which causes stomach pain and heavy menstrual bleeding. They can also cause infertility and recurrent miscarriages. 6) Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) This cause of Infertility occurs in women younger than or of 40 years of age, wherein their ovaries stop ovulating. They lose their reproductive capabilities, and it puts them at a higher risk for heart disease and osteoporosis. Male Factor Causes of Infertility 1) Azoospermia and Oligospermia Azoospermia refers to complete absence of sperm, whereas Oligospermia refers to the lesser sperm cell production. Other causes include abnormal sperm cells or sperm cells that die before they reach the egg. 2) Varicocele It refers to the swelling of the veins that drain the testicle. It is the most common reversible cause of Infertility and is related to abnormal testicular temperature regulation. They result in the reduced quality of sperm. 3) Infection Infections such as epididymis, orchitis, sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea and HIV are significant causes of Infertility in the male partner. Some result in permanent testicular damage while most often, sperm can be retrieved. 4) Problems with Ejaculation Retrograde Ejaculation transpires when semen enters the bladder during intercourse, instead of emerging out of the penis. This cause of Infertility is mainly due to various health conditions such as diabetes, spinal injuries, medications, surgery of the bladder, prostate or urethra. 5) Tumours Cancers and nonmalignant tumours can affect the male reproductive organs through the glands that release reproduction hormones such as the pituitary gland, or other unknown causes. 6)Hormonal Imbalance
Another cause of Infertility could be due to an abnormality affecting another hormonal system, including the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone and other hormonal problems have several possible underlying causes. 7) Chromosome Defects Abnormal development of reproductive organs is caused either by inherited disorders such as Klinefelter syndrome or other genetic syndromes associated with Infertility such as cystic fibrosis, Kallmann's syndrome and Kartagener's syndrome. Infertility is a rare condition, and many methods could be adopted to overcome this problem. Regular check-ups must be done for sexually transmitted diseases, environmental toxins must be avoided while trying to conceive as it is found that a chemical named Phthalates was known to cause genetic birth defects in boys who are exposed in the womb, high mercury is related to miscarriages and benzene is known as an endocrine disruptor which causes Infertility. Other measures include zero intakes of drugs and tobacco, reduced consumption of alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet and also maintaining sexual health.
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